5th Grade ESL Tennessee History
Part Six: Tennessee Goes to War Again
Camp Tyson poster
PHOTO: H.C. Spinks Clay Co.
3) Tennessee's Henry County had a barrage balloon training center called Camp Tyson. Barrage balloons held up cables and nets over large European countries to protect them from enemy bombs.
War maneuvers near Watertown, Tennessee
PHOTO: U.S. Army
4) Germans, Italians, and the Japanese were the enemy. When they were captured by Americans, they became prisoners of war (POWs). Thousands of POWs were housed in Tennessee at seven different locations.
5) The US army would perform manuevers with their army tanks in Tennessee. Tennessee'e terrain was similar to Western Europe's. Why would Tennessee's terrain be helpful in training the army?
The K-25 plant manufactured uranium
PHOTO: Ed Westcott
6) Vultee, an airplane factory near the Nashville airport, built war planes. Many of the 7,000 employees were women.
7) In 1945, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and its 75,000 residents helped manufacture the uranium needed for an atomic bomb. The uranium was placed in Little Boy, the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. The Japanese surrendered and World War II ended.
PHOTO: Cordell Hull Foundation for International Education
8) Cordell Hull, born in a small log cabin in Pickett County, is known as the Father of the United Nations. He was appointed President Roosevelt's Secretary of State in 1933. When he was unsuccessful in stopping World War II from happening, he decided to build an international organization called The United Nations that could help prevent future wars. He won the 1945 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. Why was Hull deserving of this award?
General Frank Andrews
PHOTO: U.S. Air Force
9) General Frank Andrews was one of the highest ranking officers in the U.S. military during World War II. He is considered one of the founders of the U.S. Air Force, which is why an air force base is named for him (Andrews Air Force Base).
PHOTO: Hill Aerospace Museum
10) Cornelia Fort was a Nashville woman who trained to become a pilot for the war effort. She was chosen to be a member of the Women's Auxillary Flying Squadron. The squadron flew new planes from factories to military bases.
Our New Tennessee History Words
*global: Something is global if it involves the entire world.
*The Allies: During World War II, The Allies included the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and many nations that had smaller military forces that fought with these three countries.
* The Axis: The Axis included the countries of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
* prisoner of war: When a soldier or sailor is captured during wartime by the enemy, he or she often becomes a prisoner of war and is sent to a special place where they are kept.
*maneuvers: Maneuvers are military training exercises.
*terrain: Terrain refers to the physical features of land.
*uranium: Uranium is a metallic element used for nuclear weapons.
*atomic bomb: An atomic bomb is a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by splitting uranium. It causes mass destruction.
*surrendered: Surrender is when soldiers stop fighting and become prisoners of war.
*air force: An air force refers to the air army of a country.
*squadron: A squadron is a small unit of military aircraft.