A family in Fayette County is evicted from its home in September 1960.
PHOTO: Ernest Withers
County Seat: Brownsville
How would you like it if your family was kicked out of its home and forced to live in a tent for more than a year? This happened to thousands of people in Fayette and Haywood counties in the early 1960s.
This chapter of the Civil Rights Movement is known by the words "Tent City." Here's what happened:
In the 1950s, two-thirds of the people in Fayette and Haywood counties were black, but practically none of them were allowed to vote. In the spring and summer of 1959, many blacks in the two counties, along with black and white Civil Rights activists from other parts of the country, tried to change this by organizing a voter registration drive. This didn't work either; when black voters turned up to vote in Fayette and Haywood counties on August 1, 1959, some of them were told that they weren't allowed to vote because it was a "white primary." Others were given more creative answers.
Two of the many tents in the "Tent City" located on Shephard Towles' land.
PHOTO: Ernest Withers
At the time, most black people in this part of Tennessee didn't own their own land, but made their living as sharecroppers on white-owned farms, and lived in shacks located on those farms. When blacks filed a lawsuit to challenge the election, many white landowners evicted them from their property. Meanwhile, many white businessmen began refusing to do business with black people -- which meant black people couldn't buy gasoline, buy groceries, or go to the doctor, in Fayette and Haywood counties (many began driving to Memphis for their services at that time.) John McFarren was one of a small group of Fayette County black leaders who tried to keep the entire black community supplied.
One of the many black families living in one of the Tent Cities
One of the few black farmers who owned his land was Shephard Towles. When white landowners began evicting their black sharecropper families, Towles built a series of large tents on his land (near Somerville) for these families to live in (the tents were Army surplus, apparently donated by people of both races). Within a few weeks there were hundreds of people living in Towles "tent city." Soon there was another Tent City near the Fayette County town of Moscow.
These families lived in tents for more than a year in conditions we would describe today as inhuman. (Dozens of families shared a single outhouse, for instance.) Fortunately for them, they received food and supplies from a local organization of black leaders known as the Fayette County Civic and Welfare League, from national organizations such as the National Baptist Convention and the NAACP, and from private donors all over the country. A reporter asked President Kennedy what he intended to do about it. Kennedy gave a vague answer.
In 1962 a federal court made it clear that landowners could not use economic pressure and evict people as a method of discouraging them to vote. This, however, didn't help the people living in the tent cities, since it didn't force landowners to take their tenants back. It took years for many of the tent city residents to find places to live. A lot of them left the county and the state forever. Meanwhile blacks in Fayette and Haywood counties weren't really allowed to vote until the national Voting Rights Act of 1965 was enforced in the late 1960s.
The most famous person to ever come from Haywood County was born under the name Annie Mae Bullock. Today she is known as Tina Turner. Her parents were poor farmers near Brownsville, and she was raised in the 1940s in the small town of Nutbush (a town she later wrote a song about). In the 1950s her musical career was launched when she became a backup singer for Ike Turner, who she later married and divorced.
Through the years Tina Turner has had one of the longest lasting careers of any singer in rock history. And Rolling Stone magazine once said that “when it comes to injecting energy and passion in a song, no one does it like Tina Turner.”
The Mindfield sculpture
Also in Haywood County you will find the largest sculpture in Tennessee. It's called the Mind Field, and it is the creation of a Brownsville resident and artist Billy Tripp. If you are driving through Brownsville, stop and take a look at the Mind Field. It's huge (70 feet high) and made of steel and Tripp's imagination.
A couple of blocks from the Mind Field, you'll find the Haywood County Courthouse, shown here.